Hormonal Contraceptives and Post-fertilization Effects

April 1, 2022
Edition: Spring 2022
Volume: 37
Issue: 1
Article: 2

Table of Contents


Hormonal contraceptives are widely used for birth control  and therapeutic purposes. The mechanism of action proposed for these compounds can be found in several scientific journals published to date. The present work consists in a scoping review of a convenience sample of papers regarding the mechanisms of action of each of the three main classes of hormonal contraceptives available. Different parameters and biological consequences associated with their use were also reviewed. Based on these data, we evaluated the probability of embryo loss due to the use of hormonal contraceptives. Evidence indicates the probability of embryo loss due to post-fertilization effects.

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About the Authors

Affiliation: Marta M. S. Calçada is a religious sister at the “Fraternidade Arca de Maria”. She obtained a degree in Chemical Engineering and a Master’s degree in Biologic Engineering from the IST of the University of Lisbon, Portugal. She also obtained a Bachelor’s degree in Theology from the UCP in Petrópolis - RJ, Brazil.
Affiliation: Anderson M. R. Alves is a priest of the diocese of Petrópolis (RJ – Brazil). He obtained a Bachelor’s degree in Theology from the University of Navarro, Spain, a Master’s degree in Moral Theology and a PhD in Philosophy from the PUSC (Rome, Italy). He is a professor at the Catholic University of Petrópolis, Brazil.